I've always been very lucky in that at each of my jobs I've had the lattitude to make those decisions. I've been able to make those decisions - relatively on my own - because I maintain excellent communications with program and other staff so that I always know organizational needs and wants. As I'm doing research or as opportunities arise, I'm generally able to take advantage of them because I'm always abreast of what's going on funding-wise and organizationally.
Step through a sales funnel's metrics (revenue on a product, all costs associated with the sale, ad click through rates, website call-in rates, conversion rates) to back out the maximum cost to acquire a website visitor.
I said that I am generally an easy-going person, used to deadlines, treat colleagues with respect--but also believe there would be less freaking out if a standard procedure and timelines were developed to ensure a smooth proposal development process and minimize last-minute panic.
Minimal honestly. But in school I did contribute sparingly to a newsletter that covered local restaurants in the area. It was a small, college town so it gave me a chance to work pretty closely with the business owners.