Nothing. The head of the recruiting firm said he could size people up in 30 seconds and did not need to ask anything. The only thing he could have seen was my age; of course, he might not have liked navy blue suits.
Needs Analysis, because if you are not on the same page with the customer, you will design something that's off base. You may also start designing when training is not necessary, or uncover process concerns as part of analysis that need to be addressed.
The ADDIE method is probably the most commonly still used method for ID, although some people prefer the more rapid SAM. Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation are all important steps. I suggest being able to describe each step in detail during the interview.