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Is it possible to sort using linear time a file with lots of numbers that contain duplicates, when there are no limits of resources or space?
It is possible, just use a hash map in the first pass, and then on the second pass store it in a one dimensional array.
if space is not a problem, create a integer array with size equal to the range of numbers. initialize all to 0. Then do array[number]++ for each number in file
use bucket sort.. if stability is not the issue. or use counting sort