Job Openings -29% Since March, Employee Satisfaction Drops as Crisis Drags On


June 16, 2020

Key Findings

  • U.S. job openings continue to decline to 4.3 million. Job openings are down 29 percent since early March but may soon bottom out.
  •  Employees are increasingly dissatisfied with their employers’ response to the prolonged COVID-19 crisis. Less than half (44 percent) of employee reviews on Glassdoor speak positively about their employers’ COVID-19 response, a drop from the mid-April peak of 52 percent.
  • Job openings rebound for travel & tourism (+14 percent month-over-month) and retail (+4.1 percent), even as reduced consumer demand ripples through high-tech industries like information technology (-9.1 percent) and biotech & pharmaceuticals (-6.7 percent).
  • Northeastern states saw the most drastic decline in job openings over the last month (-10.3 percent), while the South (-0.1 percent) and West (-0.8 percent) have fared better. Some states like Arizona (+3.7 percent) saw job openings grow; however, as COVID-19 cases begin to rise in the South and West, it remains to be seen if the economic momentum can be maintained.

As the COVID-19 crisis enters its fourth month, the labor market impact continues to escalate. Glassdoor’s latest Job Market Report shows that, as of June 8, job openings have declined to 4.3 million, down 29 percent from the beginning of March and down 0.3 percent from the week prior.

Job openings declined in the week of May 25, as the Memorial Day holiday slowed hiring. However, unlike in previous years, job openings did not rebound on the other side. Instead, while job openings appeared on the verge of a sustained recovery before the Memorial Day decline, those signs have since abated and the job openings data shows we may not have reached the bottom yet.

This continued decline in demand for new workers occurs against a backdrop of other improving labor market indicators, including a surprise jump in payrolls and a plateau in continuing claims. While rehiring some of the many furloughed workers is likely driving short-term job gains seen in other labor market indicators, depressed job openings may stifle the recovery if furloughed workers are rehired but demand for new workers remains muted.

  

Employee Satisfaction with Employers’ COVID-19 Response Dips

The COVID-19 crisis in the United States, now entering its fourth month, has fundamentally changed the workplace and required companies to adapt to help their employees through these unprecedented times. How employees view their employers’ responses has changed over time, Glassdoor data shows.  

Today, about 5 percent of U.S. employee reviews submitted on Glassdoor daily mention COVID-19. As of June 14, less than half (44 percent) of these reviews speak positively of their employer’s response, a dip from a high of 52 percent in mid-April, but better than the dissatisfaction seen in March when positive sentiment was only at 8 percent. 

The chart below shows how employees’ views of their employer’s response have changed over the course of the pandemic in the U.S. Since mid-April, satisfaction has trended down slightly as the crisis drags on and workers continue to report concern about layoffs, work-from-home arrangements and burnout.

Majority of Employers Have Reduced Job Openings

Based on an analysis of employer job posting behavior on Glassdoor, 69 percent employers have reduced their job openings since the beginning of March, with 27 percent of employers pulling down all job openings. 16 percent have increased job openings since the beginning of March, indicating that pockets of growing labor demand still exist in the economy.

Change in Job Openings by Industry

  • Job openings for some of the hardest-hit industries like travel & tourism (+14 percent month-over-month) and retail (+4.1 percent) are now rebounding as restrictions on non-essential businesses are relaxed. However, demand for new workers is still substantially below pre-crisis levels, indicating that it will take time for these industries to climb out of the deep economic hole they’re in.
  • Restaurants & bars’ (+0.2 percent month-over-month) rebound in job openings is more muted. Even as businesses reopen, cautious consumer demand is likely to suppress the need for more workers.
  • White collar industries continue to shed job openings, even in technical industries like information technology (-9.1 percent) and biotech & pharmaceuticals (-6.7 percent). The decline in job openings reflects reduced demand from consumers and businesses, as the impact of the crisis ripples through the economy.

Industries with the Largest Change in Job Openings

Largest Increase Largest Decrease
Industry MoM % Industry MoM %
Travel & Tourism 14.0% Internet & Tech -46.9%
Private Security 12.6% Aerospace & Defense -11.7%
Automotive 11.3% Business Services -9.6%
Consumer Services 10.6% Information Technology -9.1%
Wholesale 9.5% Biotech & Pharmaceuticals -6.7%

Source: Glassdoor Job Market Report, June 16, 2020

For more detailed data on job openings trends by industry and industry group, see our appendix below.

Change in Job Openings by State

  • States in the South and West are among those with the fastest rebound in job openings. While job openings are improving in Arizona (+3.7 percent month-over-month), Alabama (+2.0 percent) and Florida (+1.5 percent), these are also states where experts are concerned about the rising number of COVID-19 cases. These will be important states and regions to watch in the coming weeks to see if the health risks of reopening can be mitigated while maintaining a faster economic recovery.
  • States in the Northeast have seen the worst continuing declines in job openings, with 8 of the 10 states with the largest declines in job openings hailing from that region. These Northeast states, along with other states like Michigan, experienced some of the worst COVID-19 outbreaks and are seeing accumulating damage. It remains to be seen how quickly their economies can resume normal activity as outbreaks begin to abate.
  • Remote job openings grew 13.1 percent month-over-month, over three times faster than job openings in any given state. While remote jobs are still a small percentage of overall job openings in the U.S., they’re becoming a larger share at a time when many companies are already set up for and increasingly willing to accommodate work-from-home arrangements.

States with the Largest Change in Job Openings

Largest Increase Largest Decrease
State MoM % State MoM %
Arizona 3.7% Massachusetts -23.9%
Idaho 3.3% New Hampshire -14.8%
South Dakota 3.3% New Jersey -9.8%
Oregon 2.8% Rhode Island -9.2%
Utah 2.6% Pennsylvania -6.7%
Minnesota 2.1% New York -5.5%
Alabama 2.0% Wisconsin -4.6%
Louisiana 1.6% Hawaii -4.5%
Montana 1.6% Maine -4.4%
Florida 1.5% Michigan -4.1%

Source: Glassdoor Job Market Report, June 16, 2020

Change in Job Openings by Census Region

Census Region MoM %
Northeast -10.3%
Midwest -1.7%
South -0.1%
West -0.8%

Note: Census Regions defined here.

Source: Glassdoor Job Market Report, June 16, 2020

For more detailed data on job openings trends by state and for select metropolitan areas, see our appendix below.

Conclusion

Improvement in some labor market indicators appear to signal that a recovery is underway. However, turning points are notoriously difficult to identify. Additionally, the current economic crisis overlays two separate effects on the labor markets: temporary layoffs from shutdowns and permanent layoffs from the decline in demand. 

While the tens of millions of Americans on temporary layoff is enormous, the hope is that most of those workers will return to their jobs once the crisis has passed. Permanent job losses, however, run the risk of restraining the economy for years. Even if furloughed workers are largely rehired, depressed job openings point to a shortfall in demand for workers that will make it difficult to make a full economic recovery.

Methodology

To analyze review data, we identified U.S. reviews submitted to Glassdoor that contain keywords related to the crisis e.g. “coronavirus”, “COVID-19”, “quarantine”, “shelter-in-place”. Reviews that discuss the crisis in the “pros” were labeled as having positive sentiment, and discussions in the “cons” were labeled as negative. Review data metrics are smoothed using a 1-week trailing average.

The job openings data for the selected dates is generated based on the methodology used in Glassdoor’s monthly Job Market Report, which provides a real-time view of hiring trends and wage growth across the U.S. based on millions of online jobs and salaries on Glassdoor. The data represents a snapshot of the number of job openings available on Glassdoor on the highlighted dates.

Week-over-week, month-over-month and year-over-year comparisons are based on the Mondays from the comparable period. Except where otherwise noted, no additional smoothing, averaging or seasonal adjustment for job openings data is performed. Because no smoothing or averaging takes place, the data may not be directly comparable to Glassdoor’s monthly Job Market Report.

Appendix

Each table may not sum up to total. For example, industry data may be missing for some employers.

Table A: Change in Job Openings by Industry

Job Openings Percent Change
Jun 8, 2020 Jun 1, 2020 May 11, 2020 Jun 10, 2019
Category Current Week Last Week Last Month Last Year Week-over-Week Month-over-Month Year-over-Year
Total 4,340,227 4,351,804 4,455,234 6,012,323 -0.3% -2.6% -27.8%
Accounting & Legal 30,875 31,067 32,354 35,578 -0.6% -4.6% -13.2%
Aerospace & Defense 58,467 58,128 66,233 84,967 0.6% -11.7% -31.2%
Architecture & Civil Engineering 26,550 26,713 27,877 43,645 -0.6% -4.8% -39.2%
Arts & Entertainment 23,386 22,685 24,323 57,251 3.1% -3.9% -59.2%
Automotive 69,484 66,867 62,419 97,692 3.9% 11.3% -28.9%
Banking & Financial Services 86,873 84,468 90,833 140,543 2.8% -4.4% -38.2%
Beauty & Fitness 51,131 50,434 51,473 84,651 1.4% -0.7% -39.6%
Biotech & Pharmaceuticals 58,356 59,599 62,523 72,729 -2.1% -6.7% -19.8%
Business Services 6,696 6,827 7,409 12,392 -1.9% -9.6% -46.0%
Computer Software & Hardware 105,913 103,587 105,379 156,823 2.2% 0.5% -32.5%
Construction 55,662 55,216 53,939 70,500 0.8% 3.2% -21.0%
Consulting 54,680 54,683 55,695 76,932 0.0% -1.8% -28.9%
Consumer Electronics 6,923 6,924 6,700 13,363 0.0% 3.3% -48.2%
Consumer Services 12,192 11,771 11,022 14,518 3.6% 10.6% -16.0%
Education & Schools 161,292 161,842 172,437 247,932 -0.3% -6.5% -34.9%
Energy & Utilities 31,164 30,956 29,656 50,659 0.7% 5.1% -38.5%
Facilities 36,028 35,896 35,658 46,530 0.4% 1.0% -22.6%
Government 115,863 111,218 118,550 134,022 4.2% -2.3% -13.5%
Health Care & Hospitals 601,223 604,279 609,161 873,031 -0.5% -1.3% -31.1%
Information Technology 104,902 105,227 115,396 164,839 -0.3% -9.1% -36.4%
Insurance 57,037 56,120 55,449 83,329 1.6% 2.9% -31.6%
Internet & Tech 80,953 88,140 152,341 60,973 -8.2% -46.9% 32.8%
Manufacturing 143,493 145,719 147,126 228,982 -1.5% -2.5% -37.3%
Marketing & Advertising 45,086 45,015 44,997 60,519 0.2% 0.2% -25.5%
Media & Publishing 11,494 11,366 12,096 28,424 1.1% -5.0% -59.6%
Nonprofit 56,920 55,823 55,664 73,224 2.0% 2.3% -22.3%
Private Security 19,808 19,178 17,592 24,264 3.3% 12.6% -18.4%
Real Estate 44,069 43,769 40,318 49,626 0.7% 9.3% -11.2%
Restaurants & Bars 444,404 451,799 443,580 535,977 -1.6% 0.2% -17.1%
Retail 338,292 331,065 325,000 470,034 2.2% 4.1% -28.0%
Supermarkets 84,214 86,647 85,611 88,768 -2.8% -1.6% -5.1%
Telecommunications 23,082 23,214 23,316 40,414 -0.6% -1.0% -42.9%
Transportation & Logistics 196,727 203,511 207,786 343,880 -3.3% -5.3% -42.8%
Travel & Tourism 22,799 21,961 19,998 95,756 3.8% 14.0% -76.2%
Wholesale 18,266 17,796 16,679 31,317 2.6% 9.5% -41.7%

Source: Glassdoor Job Market Report, June 16, 2020

Table B: Change in Job Openings by Industry Group

Job Openings Percent Change
Jun 8, 2020 Jun 1, 2020 May 11, 2020 Jun 10, 2019
Category Current Week Last Week Last Month Last Year Week-over-Week Month-over-Month Year-over-Year
Total 4,340,227 4,351,804 4,455,234 6,012,323 -0.3% -2.6% -27.8%
Business Services 157,145 156,770 158,047 209,685 0.2% -0.6% -25.1%
Construction & Real Estate Services 162,309 161,594 157,792 210,301 0.4% 2.9% -22.8%
Consumer Services 213,568 208,298 204,647 418,706 2.5% 4.4% -49.0%
Finance & Insurance 143,910 140,588 146,282 223,872 2.4% -1.6% -35.7%
Food Services 444,404 451,799 443,580 535,977 -1.6% 0.2% -17.1%
Health Care 659,579 663,878 671,684 945,760 -0.6% -1.8% -30.3%
Production 241,670 243,594 251,911 374,228 -0.8% -4.1% -35.4%
Public Services 334,075 328,883 346,651 455,178 1.6% -3.6% -26.6%
Retail 429,429 424,636 417,311 572,165 1.1% 3% -24.9%
Tech 291,768 296,954 373,116 382,635 -1.7% -21.8% -23.7%
Trade & Transportation 214,993 221,307 224,465 375,197 -2.9% -4.2% -42.7%

Source: Glassdoor Job Market Report, June 16, 2020

Table C: Change in Job Openings by State

Job Openings Percent Change
Jun 8, 2020 Jun 1, 2020 May 11, 2020 Jun 10, 2019
Category Current Week Last Week Last Month Last Year Week-over-Week Month-over-Month Year-over-Year
Total 4,340,227 4,351,804 4,455,234 6,012,323 -0.3% -2.6% -27.8%
Remote 9,642 8,631 8,522 8,734 11.7% 13.1% 10.4%
AK 9,225 9,208 9,352 12,156 0.2% -1.4% -24.1%
AL 61,191 61,077 59,991 78,270 0.2% 2.0% -21.8%
AR 32,129 32,473 32,155 41,666 -1.1% -0.1% -22.9%
AZ 93,100 92,303 89,737 125,208 0.9% 3.7% -25.6%
CA 467,535 466,530 477,907 673,830 0.2% -2.2% -30.6%
CO 90,457 92,871 92,638 130,447 -2.6% -2.4% -30.7%
CT 50,501 51,247 52,329 67,776 -1.5% -3.5% -25.5%
DC 33,704 34,037 35,068 44,532 -1.0% -3.9% -24.3%
DE 16,034 15,813 16,417 19,424 1.4% -2.3% -17.5%
FL 230,740 228,097 227,281 320,026 1.2% 1.5% -27.9%
GA 138,137 138,278 139,845 202,478 -0.1% -1.2% -31.8%
HI 11,923 11,964 12,487 20,123 -0.3% -4.5% -40.7%
IA 44,695 45,462 45,451 63,030 -1.7% -1.7% -29.1%
ID 18,666 18,887 18,074 22,088 -1.2% 3.3% -15.5%
IL 172,773 172,139 179,539 258,642 0.4% -3.8% -33.2%
IN 95,525 96,126 96,658 121,646 -0.6% -1.2% -21.5%
KS 40,559 41,210 41,546 53,742 -1.6% -2.4% -24.5%
KY 60,063 60,248 59,433 72,143 -0.3% 1.1% -16.7%
LA 49,364 49,554 48,604 64,077 -0.4% 1.6% -23.0%
MA 130,773 131,887 171,775 194,223 -0.8% -23.9% -32.7%
MD 104,398 103,980 106,970 134,629 0.4% -2.4% -22.5%
ME 21,194 21,713 22,172 26,211 -2.4% -4.4% -19.1%
MI 113,670 112,690 118,494 153,395 0.9% -4.1% -25.9%
MN 82,124 82,260 80,439 115,774 -0.2% 2.1% -29.1%
MO 81,160 80,706 81,456 114,917 0.6% -0.4% -29.4%
MS 30,510 31,626 30,458 36,920 -3.5% 0.2% -17.4%
MT 12,906 12,775 12,701 15,006 1.0% 1.6% -14.0%
NC 142,319 141,716 147,405 208,760 0.4% -3.5% -31.8%
ND 11,592 11,967 11,994 18,320 -3.1% -3.4% -36.7%
NE 26,321 26,982 26,731 33,435 -2.4% -1.5% -21.3%
NH 23,089 23,499 27,084 32,922 -1.7% -14.8% -29.9%
NJ 125,752 127,892 139,477 151,184 -1.7% -9.8% -16.8%
NM 31,886 32,158 32,107 40,413 -0.8% -0.7% -21.1%
NV 33,705 33,810 33,495 50,273 -0.3% 0.6% -33.0%
NY 210,188 210,260 222,448 306,145 0.0% -5.5% -31.3%
OH 155,394 153,656 154,408 209,051 1.1% 0.6% -25.7%
OK 44,357 44,519 44,036 58,981 -0.4% 0.7% -24.8%
OR 50,994 50,598 49,616 72,600 0.8% 2.8% -29.8%
PA 190,904 191,765 204,697 241,440 -0.4% -6.7% -20.9%
RI 14,846 15,312 16,345 19,466 -3.0% -9.2% -23.7%
SC 70,064 70,202 69,413 92,373 -0.2% 0.9% -24.2%
SD 13,783 13,825 13,344 16,421 -0.3% 3.3% -16.1%
TN 90,594 90,453 89,405 126,045 0.2% 1.3% -28.1%
TX 329,289 330,338 327,276 473,663 -0.3% 0.6% -30.5%
UT 39,217 38,760 38,223 51,855 1.2% 2.6% -24.4%
VA 148,881 148,535 150,143 198,436 0.2% -0.8% -25.0%
VT 10,058 10,111 10,284 13,550 -0.5% -2.2% -25.8%
WA 116,142 119,568 117,212 154,849 -2.9% -0.9% -25.0%
WI 78,353 80,980 82,123 111,514 -3.2% -4.6% -29.7%
WV 27,368 27,828 27,090 31,078 -1.7% 1.0% -11.9%
WY 9,179 9,287 9,454 12,373 -1.2% -2.9% -25.8%

Source: Glassdoor Job Market Report, June 16, 2020

Table D: Change in Job Openings for Select Metropolitan Areas

Job Openings Percent Change
Jun 8, 2020 Jun 1, 2020 May 11, 2020 Jun 10, 2019
Category Current Week Last Week Last Month Last Year Week-over-Week Month-over-Month Year-over-Year
Total 4,340,227 4,351,804 4,455,234 6,012,323 -0.3% -2.6% -27.8%
Atlanta, GA 82,618 82,747 82,543 128,363 -0.2% 0.1% -35.6%
Boston, MA 103,091 103,665 138,618 158,701 -0.6% -25.6% -35.0%
Chicago, IL 134,482 133,659 140,873 199,204 0.6% -4.5% -32.5%
Houston, TX 67,008 67,437 66,115 98,194 -0.6% 1.4% -31.8%
Los Angeles, CA 149,649 146,892 148,534 219,760 1.9% 0.8% -31.9%
New York City, NY 225,572 227,438 249,132 308,717 -0.8% -9.5% -26.9%
Philadelphia, PA 86,485 85,569 86,974 115,458 1.1% -0.6% -25.1%
San Francisco, CA 99,080 99,113 105,737 148,636 0.0% -6.3% -33.3%
Seattle, WA 85,367 88,488 85,089 115,410 -3.5% 0.3% -26.0%
Washington, DC 138,799 139,630 144,347 185,984 -0.6% -3.8% -25.4%

Source: Glassdoor Job Market Report, June 16, 2020