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Hardware Engineering Intern Interview Questions

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If you increase the width of a PCB trace, does it decrease or increase the trace impedance?

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As you increase trace width, impedance is lowered.

The question is a little tricky (not really tho). The impedance of a straight line is described by Z=R+jX, where R is the resistance and X is the reactance. As the width of the trace is increased, R decreases. If we assume that there is no inductance, then the impedance will go down, as X=1/(jwC), and C=W*L*C0. However, in a very inductive space (like trace is curly and goes around itself a lot), then X = jwL, thus increasing the complex part of the impedance. I would go with the decreasing impedance, as on the PCBs resistance is the dominant term.

If you increase the width of the pcb trace then it will help decreasing the resistance of the PCB trace. I give you a simple analogy if for example we consider the inductance as the negligible amount then, ( R=c (L/A)) where c is resistivity . And we are increasing the Area of cross section that is A. Then that is inversely proportional to the resistance and hence it decreases the impedance.

What factors control the impedance of a trace?

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A time you had a bug and how you fixed it.

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Talk about one of the projects you described in your resume.

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question about your resume and related projects?

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What happens to a signal integrity as you increase length and when there is return current?

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Design an asynchronous state machine that has three inputs and one output.

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Give me three reasons why I should hire you.

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What do you expect to see at the output when you connect 8 more inverters to an inverter?

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Why do you need to calculate gain and phase?

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